This tutorial is going to be using the following repository: https://github.com/gtmanfred/wordpress-formula
For Mac, there is an
rbenv package in homebrew.
brew install rbenv
For Linux, there is an installer script.
The following instructions will allow for a global install of rbenv.
Install the dependencies for building ruby
sudo yum install -y openssl-devel readline-devel zlib-devel bzip2 gcc make git
sudo apt update sudo apt install -y libssl-dev libreadline-dev zlib1g-dev bzip2 gcc make git
clone git repos and setup path
sudo git clone git://github.com/rbenv/rbenv.git /usr/local/rbenv sudo mkdir /usr/local/rbenv/plugins sudo git clone git://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git /usr/local/rbenv/plugins/ruby-build sudo tee /etc/profile.d/rbenv.sh <<< 'export PATH="/usr/local/rbenv/plugins/ruby-build/bin:/usr/local/rbenv/bin:$PATH"' sudo tee -a /etc/profile.d/rbenv.sh <<< 'source <(rbenv init -)'
now the shell needs to be restarted so that the rbenv commands are in the path, and then
rbenv init -adds the shims path to the PATH as well.
Install ruby and set it as the version to use by default
rbenv install 2.6.3 rbenv global 2.6.3
If gemsets are needed, the rbenv-gemset plugin can be added to the gemsets repository.
rvm is another method of managing ruby version.
Import the gpg key from https://rvm.io
gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 409B6B1796C275462A1703113804BB82D39DC0E3 7D2BAF1CF37B13E2069D6956105BD0E739499BDB
Run the installer script
\curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io | bash -s stable
Install and use ruby
rvm use --install --create ruby@salt
and rvm will manage installing all of the required packages for managing ruby versions via rvm. The
@saltportion creates a specific gemset (
rvm help gemset).
There are a few things that are needed for running kitchen-salt
The bundler gem should be installed
gem install bundler
This will make the
bundlecommand available. Bundler only lets uses the gems listed in the
Gemfilein the directory tree where commands are run.
Create a gemfile. Now a kitchen driver will need to be choosen. This tutorial is going to use
# Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org' gem 'kitchen-salt' gem 'kitchen-docker' gem 'kitchen-sync'
kitchen-syncis not required for this, but it does copy files to the container faster.
Run bundler to install gems.
This will install all the gems from the Gemfile, and make only those gems available when commands are run with
bundle exec <command>
For more complicated setups where different methods of running Kitchen are required, groups can be assigned in the Gemfile.
# Gemfile source 'https://rubygems.org' gem 'test-kitchen', :git => 'https://github.com/gtmanfred/test-kitchen.git' gem 'kitchen-salt', :git => 'https://github.com/saltstack/kitchen-salt.git' gem 'kitchen-sync' gem 'git' group :docker do gem 'kitchen-docker', :git => 'https://github.com/test-kitchen/kitchen-docker.git' end group :windows do gem 'vagrant-wrapper' gem 'kitchen-vagrant' gem 'winrm', '~>2.0' gem 'winrm-fs', :git => 'https://github.com/gtmanfred/winrm-fs.git' end
To specify only installing certain groups, use the
bundle install --with windows --without docker
.kitchen.yml file needs to be setup for running tests. The following sections should be copied into the .kitchen.yml file in the root of the directory for the
The driver needs to be setup to build the test instance correctly.
driver: name: docker use_sudo: false privileged: true forward: - 80
The example will be using docker. If
sudo is required to run the docker command to build containers, then
use_sudo should be set to True. The
privileged options enables the container to run systemd as the Exec Command for the docker container. And lastly, port 80 will be forwarded to the host so that the tests can check that the wordpress website is running.
If different platforms or different suites need to have different driver configurations, they can be set in the
Here is where the
kitchen-sync transport is specified.
transport: name: sftp
If windows is being tested,
winrm-transport will probably be required for the
This section is where the distributions and operating systems that will be tested are specified. Because different distributions put the systemd binary in different places, the
run_command is specified here in the
platforms: - name: centos driver_config: run_command: /usr/lib/systemd/systemd
This is the section where the different test suites are specified. Common uses will be to test different paths through the formulas or different versions of salt with the same formula.
suites: - name: nitrogen provisioner: salt_bootstrap_options: -X -p git stable 2017.7 - name: carbon provisioner: salt_bootstrap_options: -X -p git stable 2016.11
Because different versions of salt are being tested, different
salt_bootstrap_options are used.
The verifier is where the testing to check if the states run was successfull.
verifier: name: shell remote_exec: false command: pytest -v tests/integration/
wordpress-formula, pytest is used to make http calls to the server to check that the wordpress website is up, and configured the way that it was specified. There are several other things that could be used here:
And then basically any other unit test framework that could be run from the shell could be used to replace the one above.
This is what kitchen-salt actually provides.
provisioner: name: salt_solo salt_install: bootstrap is_file_root: true require_chef: false salt_copy_filter: - .git dependencies: - name: apache repo: git source: https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/apache-formula.git - name: mysql repo: git source: https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/mysql-formula.git - name: php repo: git source: https://github.com/saltstack-formulas/php-formula.git state_top: base: "*": - wordpress pillars: top.sls: base: "*": - wordpress pillars_from_files: wordpress.sls: pillar.example
In this, the salt provisioner is specified by the name
salt_solo. The salt-bootstrap script is used to install salt. The option
is_file_root specifies that the top level directory of this git repository should be copied to the salt
file_root in the test instance. Since ruby is not being used to test the instance in the verifier step,
require_chef is set to
dependencies are different repositories that the
wordpress-formula depends on to be available to work correctly. The
state_top specifies the top file that will be applied. Like the
pillars_from_files directives specifies different files to drop into the salt
pillar_roots on the test instance. If there are multiple groups of state or pillar files that can be tested independently, it would probably be useful to specify the extra ones under the different suites.
Now that TestKitchen is all setup, the
wordpress-formula can be tested and verified.
First, kitchen commands that will be useful.
- list: show the current state of each configured environment
- create: create the test environment with ssh or winrm.
- converge: run the provision command, in this case, salt_solo and the specified states
- verify: run the verifier.
- login: login to created environment
- destroy: remove the created environment
- test: run create, converge, verify, and then destroy if it all succeeds
And since this formula is being tested by pytest, it will need to be installed.
pip install -r requirements
The above command will install requests and testinfra, which will also pull in the pytest dependency which is required by testinfra.
Now the following commands can finally be run.
bundle exec kitchen list bundle exec kitchen create bundle exec kitchen converge bundle exec kitchen verify bundle exec kitchen destroy
Or to simplify it
bundle exec kitchen test
With either of these, test-kitchen will do the following
- Create the instance using the method specified by the
- Install salt and run the specified states defined in the provisioner (This step is called converging).
- Run the test suite verifier.
- Destroy the instance if everything passed.
kitchen test was run, then the
kitchen list command will show all the instances and what the result of their last command was.
Run test interactivaly
verify step is failing, by default
kitchen will keep your VM running, so you can login using ssh and debug things from there. To run the
state.apply that converge is doing, run the following :
kitchen login sudo salt-call --config-dir=/tmp/kitchen/etc/salt/ --log-level=debug state.apply
If you are using the
minion_id argument run :
kitchen login sudo salt-call --config-dir=/tmp/kitchen/etc/salt/ --log-level=debug --id=salt-minion-id state.apply
This instance is now tested. For more information about
test-kitchen in general please see the following links: